Case Studies from Northeast India and Orissa

edited by Amitav Acharya (American University, USA), Subrat K Singhdeo (Madhyam Foundation, India), & M Rajaretnam (Asian Dialogue Society, Singapore)

Human security is a new paradigm for security, development and justice. Since it was first proposed in the 1990s, there has been an endless debate between its proponents and critics, and even among its advocates, over the meaning and utility of the concept. What is important now is to move the concept beyond the realm of theory and explore its practical applications, considering possible policy perspectives and implications. This book suggests new practical applications of the human security concept, such as human security mapping, the human security governance index and human security impact assessment. Using Northeast India and Orissa as case studies, the methodology introduced in this path-breaking book can be applied to conflict zones worldwide. By designating the individual rather than the state as the referent object of security, human security is emerging as a framework that can serve as a means to evaluate threats, foresee crises, analyze causes of discord and propose solutions entailing a redistribution of responsibilities. Click here to learn more or purchase online.

In the Museum Buildings of Ubud Bali


A Foreword
Why are museums built all around the world? How important is it that it must be built? These were questions I asked frequently and they became my attraction to write about the museum subject in this book. There is a saying that goes like this:

"Learn from History"
Robert V. Daniels, a historian, stated that history is a memory of human experience. Therefore, it can be concluded that it is in the learning from the experience of our fore fathers that we may understand the good way of living, and then, how to develop further the good things started by our older generations. Aside from that, the understanding of history can also help us avoid mistakes made by our predecessors, that it will not be repeated with all its negative effects on nature and human life. History can help man, particularly the younger generations, understand human behavior in the past and present in order to be predicted in the future. But how can we study and understand human behavior in three different periods of time all at once? This is one of the answers why a museum should be built.

A museum is not only the place to store and exhibit the historical items but also to document and collect products of the creations of the people from generation to generation. Some of the collections are the only items left in this world, and these items are very valuable, but they are fragile and sensitive for the theft. They need special maintenances and cares. That is why the museum should be planned and designed with special considerations of these problems.

"Concealed Secrets In The Museums Of Ubud, Bali" is a book that elaborates on Ubud museum architecture. This book shall be the first book in Indonesia that analyzes and explores the architectural and artistic aspects of museum buildings in Ubud, explaining the design concepts based on the owners hope and objective in building the museum. Why am I interested in Ubud museums? There are a number of very specific advantages and uniquenesses of the museums in Ubud to be uncovered. Generally Indonesian museums make use of buildings from the Dutch colonial time, where the designs are of course works of Dutch architects in Indonesia. These buildings are known as Indie buildings. Some of the museums are built by the Dutch government even before Indonesia's Independence, and afterwards the management of these buildings were then taken over by the Indonesian government. There are also old buildings which in the colonial times functioned as government offices, transformed into the museums of today. From the architectural point of view, these buildings certainly do not reflect the works of the native sons of this nation, while my intention is to expose museum structures which truly represent the culture and creation of Indonesia's sons, as cultural assets worthy to be proud of. Henceforth we may observe and learn how local designers interpret museum structures according to their own views, each based on their own social and cultural backgrounds as multi cultural Indonesian.

Ubud is famous as a centre of art and culture which has its own uniqueness among the museums of Indonesia, The development of museum construction in Ubud is very fast. There is some specific uniqueness that needs to be uncovered; they are not built and managed by the government but by individual members of the amazing Ubud society. Why are they willing to build museums? These non-profitable general buildings need a lot of money to construct; the operation and maintenance costs are also quite high while investment returns are uncertain. Moreover, the works of high value that have become the museum's collections can not be sold anymore. This is one of the museum secrets that need to be uncovered; because these individuals are persons whose concept of building museums with such noble intentions can become role models for the younger generations. A person's worth to be regarded as nation's culture conservation heroes.

The other uniqueness about the museums in Ubud is that most of Ubud museums reflect the original and specific Balinese architecture, even though one of them has been the result of the coorporation between Indonesians and foreign designers, the building still shows the original Balinese character. There is still a museum that is the result of the intermingled cultural ideas of the two cultures, but also still sticks to the Balinese cultural values.

This book is divided into two parts: the first part will explain the history of museum development in Ubud and the leading figures involved. Then follows a summary of the prevailing terms and conditions in building a museum in Ubud, that based on national and the related local regulations (HIMUSBA). I think this is very important to learn in order for us to realize whether these regulations and terms will influence very much the concept and the form of the museum buildings. The further explanation of this part is about the Ubud environment as an international tourism resort; the condition of its environment, the local society, culture and the specific uniqueness of Ubud, because we like to know whether the physical environment and social culture will give consideration to the construction of the museums in Ubud.

The second part of this book is the core of its discussion, which is the analysis of the Ubud museum's architecture, covering building lay out, building room lay out, building construction, construction materials, building exterior and interior design, aesthetic detail and landscape. The five Ubud museums to be analyzed were chosen based on the similarity of type: they were all museums of art that have the same aspects to be analyzed. Aside of that, all these 5 museums are from the architectural point of view already well known nationally and internationally acknowledged as museum buildings. These 5 museum buildings also have each their own uniqueness quite intriguing to be discussed architecturally.

About the author
Sarojini Imran is a fellow of BABA 7. She is currently a lecturer in the Faculty of Architecture Engineering at Pancasila University, Indonesia. She has a Bachelor of Engineering and a Master of Science in Anthropology. She has written much on issues of sustainable development and on architecture.

"Those interested in acquiring 'Concealed Secrets' please write to the author at
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